Thursday, October 15, 2015

[ The ABO Blood Group System.]

There are four major blood groups determined by the presence or absence of two antigens – A and B – on the surface of red blood cells:
  • Group A – has only the A antigen on red cells (and B antibody in the plasma)
  • Group B – has only the B antigen on red cells (and A antibody in the plasma)
  • Group AB – has both A and B antigens on red cells (but neither A nor B antibody in the plasma)
  • Group O – has neither A nor B antigens on red cells (but both A and B antibody are in the plasma)
There are very specific ways in which blood types must be matched for a safe transfusion. See the chart below: 
Blood type chart
Group OO Blood Typediagram linking blood typesO Blood Type
A can donate red blood cells to A's and AB'sA Blood TypeA Blood Type
B can donate red blood cells to B's and AB'sB Blood TypeB Blood Type
Group AB can donate to other AB's but can receive from all othersAB Blood TypeAB Blood Type
In addition to the A and B antigens, there is a third antigen called the Rh factor, which can be either present (+) or absent ( – ). In general, Rh negative blood is given to Rh-negative patients, and Rh positive blood or Rh negative blood may be given to Rh positive patients.
  • The universal red cell donor has Type O negative blood type.
  • The universal plasma donor has Type AB blood type.

O positive is the most common blood type. Not all ethnic groups have the same mix of these blood types. Hispanic people, for example, have a relatively high number of O’s, while Asian people have a relatively high number of B’s. The mix of the different blood types in the U.S. population is:
African American
O +
O -
A +
A -
B +
B -
AB +
AB -
Some patients require a closer blood match than that provided by the ABO positive/negative blood typing. For example, sometimes if the donor and recipient are from the same ethnic background the chance of a reaction can be reduced. That’s why an African-American blood donation may be the best hope for the needs of patients with sickle cell disease, 98 percent of whom are of African-American descent.

It’s inherited. Like eye color, blood type is passed genetically from your parents. Whether your blood group is type A, B, AB or O is based on the blood types of your mother and father.
This chart shows the potential blood types you may inherit. 
ABXXX  X    
* Note: If you have questions about paternity testing or about blood group inheritance, your primary care physician should be able to provide you with an appropriate referral. Testing difficulties can cause exceptions to the above patterns. ABO blood typing is not sufficient to prove or disprove paternity or maternity.

[ Fruits to Control Diabetes.]

There is a common misconception that fruits are not good for diabetics since they have sugar. Well, you should know what really matters is the glycemic index. And many fruits have low glycemic index (GI) and favorable for diabetics. Dr Pradeep Gadge, consultant diabetologist practising at various hospitals in Mumbai says that fruits like bananas, grapes, mangoes, custard apple, chickoos,apricots,blueberries, blackberries,oranges,kiwi fruits,Chiku can be enjoyed by diabetics, albeit in

limited amounts

. He also added it is important that

one should avoid having over-ripe fruits as they might not be good for the diabetic patients.

Here is a bunch of fruits pictures to help you fight diabetes.

Saturday, October 10, 2015

[ Global Warming Tied to Kidney Aliment ]

Press Trust of India



Described as Mesoamerican


Killed 20,000 people
Study carried out in El Salvador and Nicaragua

Central America,India,Sri Lanka,Thailand,Egypt

Laborers on sugar plantations
High mortality rates among

Washington:A mysterious kidney that has killed over 20,000 people in Central America and has been observed in India and Sri Lanka may be caused by chronic,severe dehydration linked to globle climate change,a new study has found.

"This could be the first epidemic directly caused by global warming."said Richard J Johnson,professor at the University of Colorado School of Medicine,US

"Some districts of Nicaragua have been called the "land of widows" due to the high mortally rates occurring among the male workers from chronic kidney disease" Johnson said.

The epidemic was first described in 2002 and has been dubbed Mesoamerican Nephropathy.It is most prevent among manual labourers on sugar cane plantations in this hotter,lower altitudes of Central America's Pacific Coast.

Researchers studied sugar cane workers in Nicaragua and El Salvador and found that the labourers routinely worked in conditions exceeding the recommended heat heat standards of the US.

Even though some of them drank up to two liters per hour,the researchers found they still suffered serious dehydration on a daily basis.

Thursday, October 8, 2015

[ Chronic drowsiness can be treated ]

Are you nodding off at work? - Yoga can come to the rescue


Napping during the day sounds good once in a while but ignoring excessive sleepiness during working hours may have a negative impact on your health and life.A few changes in lifestyle can beat this problem.Ignoring this condition can impact work,relationship and social life,lead to stress,anxiety or depression,low energy,restlessness or agitation.A person may begin to think or speak slowly,have trouble remembering things or maintaining concentration.
Hypersomnia means excessive daytime sleepiness that interferes with everyday life.It can have many possible causes,including conditions such as narcolepsy,sleep apnoea or restless legs syndrome; severe sleep deprivation;depression;certain medications(such as tranquilizers); or drug and alcohol misuse.Identifying such cause at the earliest will give best results,"says Dr.George Dsouza,pulmonary and respiratory specialist and Dean,St John's Medical College.

A major condition that disrupts sleep during night is is Obstructive Sleep Apnoea(OSA),a condition where the walls of the throat relax and narrow during sleep,interrupting normal breathing.This condition which results in lack of OXYGEN,triggers your brain to pull you out of deep sleep - either to a lighter sleep or to wakefulness.These repeated sleep interruptions can make you feel very tired during day.You will usually have no memory of your interrupted breathing,so you may be unaware you have a problem unless a partner,friend or family member notices the symptoms while you sleep." says Dr.Dsouza.
Dr.Prashanth L K,consultant neurologist and movement disorders socialist,Apollo Hospital,opines that in older people,conditions like diabetes,prostate problems,uneasiness also may result in daytime sleepiness.In some cases certain kinds of medication may also affect sleep patterns at night.

For the young,drinking alcohol,coffee,energy drinks or staying up late at night due to technology fixation may cause such a condition.

Tests that can help

Dr.Prashanth L.K says,"Tests like Polysomnography can help rule out sleep disorders such as narcolepsy or sleep apnea.A patient is asked to stay in a special bedroom and observed from another room through the night.Electrodes are attached to the face,head and body to record brain waves,muscle activity,eye movement,breathing and snoring.Multiple sleep latency test follows the next day.A patient is asked to take several naps throughout the day just so doctors can see how long it takes them to fall asleep when instructed."

Yoga for better sleep

Dr.Arjunan Mooventhan,associate professor,department of naturopathy,SVYASA Yoga University,opines that regular yoga practice can help unwind patients suffering from insomnia or abnormal sleeping habits.Yoga helps unwind stress at the end of the day and induces better sleep at night. A good night's sleep really is within anyone's reach and the often recommended treatment is to establish relaxing bed time routine.The following Yoga stretches can help one to enjoy a peaceful sleep.

Cat stretch (Marjariasana):

Excellent stretch for spine flexibility.Also helps massage the digestive organs and improve digestion,there by helping you to sleep well.Also improves blood circulation and relaxes the mind.

Forward bend ( Hastapadasana):Helps stretch the back muscles,invigorates the nervous system by increasing blood supply,and makes the spine supple.

Butterfly pose(Buddha Konasana):This pose can help remove fatigue from long hours of standing or walking.Also a good stretch for inner thighs,groin and knees.

Child's pose(Buddha Konasana)

A deeply relaxing stretch for a back which also helps calm the nervous system so that you can sleep at peace.

Other tips to beat daytime sleep

Avoiding alcohol,caffeine and medications that make the conditions worse,sticking to bed time routine,and avoiding working at night or engaging in social activities that delay bedtime.

- Yacoob Mohammed

Tuesday, October 6, 2015

[ A Pain-free way to pump in insulin ]

At the second edition of TEDxBangalore,industrial designer presents Insulin Delivery System which needs no human Intervention

by Shyama Krishna Kumar

Queen's Road: Devina Kothari a Rajkot-based industrial designer,is set to revolutionise the way diabetics deal with their illness.The Insulin Delivery System she has designed automatically administers insulin,as per the requirement,into the patient's body through a pain-free closed-loop system,one that requires no human intervention once the device is attached to the body.

Speaking to City Express at the sidelines of TEDxBangalore at MLR convention Center,Whitefield,on Sunday,Devina explained how the suave-looking wearable tech makes the patient's life simpler." Athletes who are diabetic have to constantly rethink their agendas.A device like ours would automatically monitor their insulin levels and administer just the right right dosage that they need,essentially removing any threat of accidents.Children who have to self administer insulin when they are at school almost always get no privacy.They often use washrooms which are more often than not,unclean.A device like this which to your body would remove such complications,"she said.

The idea came to her when her diabetic uncle failed to respond to medications due to fluctuations in his glucose level.She realised that she could use technology to help people in similar predicaments."Statistics say that every fifth person in India is diabetic.This is a serious epidemic.And diabetics in turn leads to several other health issues,"she said.

The device has two components- a monitoring system and a diffusing system.The device compares the actual insulin level to the desired level,and pumps in the desired amount.The monitoring system has a biosensor that goes inside the body and moniters the blood glucose level.It transfers data in to the diffusing unit,which then transcodes it and provides the required amount of insulin.The device has a embedded GPS with a microprocessor,an LED display and a physical connector.
Insulin Delivery System also uses a micro needle,which makes the process pain free.The idea sprang to Devina's mind after she was bitten by a mosquito. the final design of the device,which took her years to complete,won Devina the Red Dot Award of the Design Zentrum Nordrhein Westfalen,Essen,Germany,one of the oldest and most reputed design institutions in the world.

Devina is now in talks with several pharmaceutical companies to release the product.The process of acquiring patents and distribution rights is under way."If I need to get this device to every patient, I will need to work on its cost as well,which means I need to scale this thing up.And I plan to do that by making the device do more than just help diabetes patients,I want to reach out to people with different kinds of ailments that need self-administrating health devices."she said.

[ The Finger - first Alarm ]

A spike in crimes against crime against the elderly is what got this team of five students to think about the elderly - soon they built the Health Monitoring System,in which an alarm can be triggered through a device attached to the finger.The Health Monitoring System,explains Kiran Thomas Varghese checks if vital body stats are abnormal changes in pulse rate acquired from the sensors to the wireless alarm and display unit thereby enabling the caretaker to reach the patient faster.The display unit immediately alerts the caretaker of the change in condition ,preventing serious injury."This is achieved by detecting the heart rate and temperature of the patient"says Kiran

Explaining further,The Mechatronics students add,"We were looking into doing some projects which could help people,so we approached our professor Dr.Dinakaran who told about a problem that he faced at home.He told us that he had to wake up in the middle of the night to check on his parents,in order to sleep in peace"

According to statistics as many as 70% of the aged depend on others for their day to day maintenance.The current pulse monitor which are available in the market do not address the specific need with the alarm mechanism.A major thing that they claim,is the really low price,making this accessible to all."We have spent about Rs.15,000/- on the project.The cost were a bit high as we had to import many of the components.But the market price of each unit will be about Rs.2000/-.Once we start production we should be able to bring down the cost to less than Rs.15,00/-,"Srinivasan Ranjit,another team member adds.

Explaining its working Santhosh Kumar E says.The heart beat is recorded using a pulse Oximetry Sensor,which processes the heart rate.If it is too low or too high the processor transmits the fact to the receiving unit will generate the alarm."What's next?Hrishikesh Krishnan says,"We have planed on a limited test launch of 50 pieces to various hospitals and map its performance in the real world.We have plans to upgrade the device in future to be used along with android application."

Right now they're really waiting for the roll out,reveals Kishoth Geethan,which is a day that can't come soon enough for them!

This wearable band could save the aged,findsRajeswari Swaminathan

Read the full story at http://bitly/GJZiAZ

Monday, October 5, 2015

Tooth sensitivity.

Do you feel a twinge of discomfort when you crunch down a cube of ice or experience excruciating pain after having a sip of hot tea or coffee? If Yes,you have sensitive teeth. Teeth become sensitive when a;
is exposed.When a tooth cracks due to worn off ENAMEL or Gums recede., the nerves are exposed leading,to extra sensitive teeth. Here are a few ways to avoid aggravation;
Watch what you eat and drink,Avoid eating acidic food and beverages on a regular basis as they can cause your your enamel to erode.

Minimise intake of soda,wine,coffee,energy drinks and fruit juice.Consume tomatoes and citrus fruits in moderation.If you crave for something acidic,drink through a straw to minimise exposure afterwords rinse your mouth with water to neutralize the pH.Wait 30 minutes before brushing.

Calcium is the prime mineral for preventing tooth problems. Dairy products are a great source of calcium,along with veggies likebroccoli,nuts and almonds.

Use a soft bristled tooth brush.Harder tooth brushes can contribute to receding gums,which expose dentin-the tissue that forms the core of each tooth.It can lead to PAIN

Opt for a desensitising toothpaste instead of a normal one and a mouth rinse that contains STANNOUS FLUORIDE.tHERE SPECIAL FORMULA blocks the tubes in the teeth that are connected to the nerves,reducing PAIN.

A sensitive tooth may be irritated if you brush with cold water.So wash with warm water NOT HOT WATER.

Do not go for any whitening treatments as they contain abrasive ingredients that increase tooth sensitivity and cause pain,especially when used often. Whiten up no only once in 6 months.

-An Initiative by sensodyne and
The Times of India